View Full Essay Words: The use of psychological theories about learning may help make for a quicker and more effective instructional process.
The theory rests on two premises. First, that the environment is an important catalyst in determining or reinforcing behaviour. If the environment is complementary to established behaviour, then such behaviour is positively reinforced.
On the other hand, if environment is hostile to the values and skills of the worker, then negative reactions take place. Based on the work of B.
Reinforcement theory suggests that behaviour or job performance is not a function of internal state of mind such as needsfeelings, emotions or perceptions but is keyed to the nature of the outcome of such behaviour. The consequences of a given behaviour could determine whether the same behaviour is likely to occur in the future or not.
|The Expectancy Theory - Essay||Just as we use positive reinforcement with our learners, it is beneficial to use positive reinforcement within the workplace. Employers may first ask what can be used as reinforcers.|
|What is Organizational Culture?||Yep, like whether you were in the same frat as the hiring manager and whether you go yachting on the weekends.|
|Is this page useful?||Work not for a reward; but never cease to do thy work.|
Based upon this direct relationship between behaviour and its consequences, management can study and identify this relationship and try to modify and control behaviour by manipulating consequences. Reinforcement is the process by which certain types of behaviours are strengthened.
Organizations are interested in reinforcing the desirable behaviour and eliminating undesirable behaviour among workers. By introducing some reinforcers, organizations can maintain or increase the probability of such behaviours as quality oriented performance, objective decision making, high level of attendance and punctuality and so on.
Thus, these reinforcers work as behaviour modifiers. There are four reinforcement strategies: Positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, extinction and punishment.
The first two reinforcers seek to encourage desirable behaviour by different approaches. The remaining two reinforcers seek to discourage undesirable behaviour. These are shown in the following diagram. A positive reinforcement is a reward for a desired behaviour. The reward should be sufficiently powerful and durable so that it increases the probability of occurrence of desirable behaviour.
Financial incentive is probably the most powerful reinforcer for positive behaviour, because money can be used for a number of other resources. However, some other positive reinforcers are participative decision making, recognition for a job well done, challenging tasks, higher responsibility, and freedom to decide how the job is to be done and so on.
Since all individuals have different motivations for performance, it is important that the positive reinforcers be individually tailored so that the reinforcer is valued by the employees. For example, a manager may like his subordinates to dress in a business suit when they come to work and may criticize individuals who dress casually.
However, this criticism stops when such individuals wear business suits to work. Thus to avoid criticism, the employees may dress well.
Similarly, students work hard, write term papers and do their homework on time to avoid the consequence of failure in the exams.
Extinction is the withdrawal of the positive reward and removal of all reinforcements following an undesirable behaviour.
For example, if a student in the class is highly mischievous and disturbs the class, he is probably asking for attention. If this attention is given to him, he will continue to exhibit that behaviour.
However, if he is continuously ignored and not recognized, then such undesirable behaviour will vanish over a period of time. To such a student, attention is a positive reinforcement and when this reinforcement is withheld from him; his disturbing behaviour is expected to decrease in frequency and eventually will disappear.
Punishment is the administration of negative consequences following an undesirable behaviour.The Dark Enlightenment – Part 1 The Dark Enlightenment – Part 2 The Dark Enlightenment – Part 3 The Dark Enlightenment – Part 4 The Dark Enlightenment – Part 4a The Dark Enlightenment – Part 4b The Dark Enlightenment – Part 4c The Dark Enlightenment – Part 4d The Dark Enlightenment – Part 4e The Dark Enlightenment – Part 4f(inal) Part 1: Neo-reactionaries head for the exit.
Positive reinforcement is the process of recognizing and rewarding a desired behavior in an effort to encourage its continuance. Positive reinforcement can consist of praise, offering incentives.
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Corruption is the cancer at the heart of so many of our problems in the world today. [Content note: hostility toward social justice, discussion of various prejudices] “Words!
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Today billion people speak English at a useful level—that’s one in four of us.