Bombe Within weeks of arriving at Bletchley Park,  Turing had specified an electromechanical machine called the bombewhich could break Enigma more effectively than the Polish bomba kryptologicznafrom which its name was derived. The bombe, with an enhancement suggested by mathematician Gordon Welchmanbecame one of the primary tools, and the major automated one, used to attack Enigma-enciphered messages. For each possible setting of the rotors which had on the order of states, or states for the four-rotor U-boat variant the bombe performed a chain of logical deductions based on the crib, implemented electromechanically.
Cognitive scientists often say that the mind is the software of the brain. This chapter is about what this claim means.
The last part of the section will discuss the relation between the mental and the biological. This approach has been popular among thinkers who fear that acknowledging mental states that do not reduce to behavior would make psychology unscientific, because unreduced mental states are not intersubjectively accessible in the manner of the entities of the hard sciences.
Behaviorists don't define the mental in terms of just plain behavior, since after all something can be intelligent even if it has never had the chance to exhibit its intelligence. Behaviorists define the mental not in terms of behavior, but rather behavioral dispositions, the tendency to emit certain behaviors given certain stimuli.
It is important that the stimuli and the behavior be specified non-mentalistically. Thus, intelligence could not be defined in terms of the disposition to give sensible responses to questions, since that would be to define a mental notion in terms of another mental notion indeed, a closely related one.
To see the difficulty of behavioristic analyses, one has to appreciate how mentalistic our ordinary behavioral descriptions are.
Consider, for example, throwing. A series of motions that constitute throwing if produced by one mental cause might be a dance to get the ants off if produced by another. An especially influential behaviorist definition of intelligence was put forward by A. Turing, one of the mathematicians who cracked the German code during World War II, formulated the idea of the universal Turing machine, which contains, in mathematical form, the essence of the programmable digital computer.
Turing wanted to define intelligence in a way that applied to both men and machines, and indeed, to anything that is intelligent. His version of behaviorism formulates the issue of whether machines could think or be intelligent in terms of whether they could pass the following test: Let's say an hour.
The computer is intelligent if and only if the judge cannot tell the difference between the computer and the person.
Turing's definition finessed the difficult problem of specifying non-mentalistically the behavioral dispositions that are characteristic of intelligence by bringing in the discrimination behavior of a human judge.
And the definition generalizes. Anything is intelligent just in case it can pass the Turing test.
Turing suggested that we replace the concept of intelligence with the concept of passing the Turing test. But what is the replacement for? If the purpose of the replacement is practical, the Turing test is not enormously useful.
If one wants to know if a machine does well at playing chess or diagnosing pneumonia or planning football strategy, it is better to see how the machine performs in action than to make it take a Turing test. For one thing, what we care about is that it do well at detecting pneumonia, not that it do it in a way indistinguishable from the way a person would do it.
So if it does the job, who cares if it doesn't pass the Turing test? A second purpose might be utility for theoretical purposes. But machines that can pass the Turing test such as Weizenbaum's ELIZA see below have been dead ends in artificial intelligence research, not exciting beginnings.ON COMPUTABLE NUMBERS, WITH AN APPLICATION TO THE ENTSCHEIDUNGSPROBLEM By A.
M. TURING. Although the subject of this paper is ostensibly the computable numbers. it is almost equally easy to define and investigate computable functions of an integral variable or a real or computable variable, computable if its decimal can be written down.
“Water, water everywhere, nor any drop to drink,” goes the famous line in Samuel Taylor Coleridge's The Rime of the Ancient Mariner. If only computer scientist Alan Turing had been alive when.
Alan Turning is known to be a pioneer of many facets of the computer age. The digital computer, artificial intelligence, memory subroutines, the Turning Machine, the Turing Test, and the application of algorithms to computers are all ideas somehow related to this man..
Alan Mathison Turing was 3/5(5). Alan Turing () is best-known for helping decipher the code created by German Enigma machines in the Second World War, and for being one of the founders of computer science and artificial intelligence.
This archive contains many of Turing's letters, talks, photographs and unpublished papers, as well as memoirs and obituaries written about him. The Papers of Alan Mathison Turing Description: The papers contain published and unpublished writings by AMT, off-prints of articles by AMT and by other authors with annotations by AMT, his Fellowship Dissertation, and correspondence.
The Annotated Turing: A Guided Tour Through Alan Turing's Historic Paper on Computability and the Turing Machine [Charles Petzold] on srmvision.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
Programming Legend Charles Petzold unlocks the secrets of theextraordinary and prescient paper by Alan M. Turing Mathematician Alan Turing invented an imaginary computer knownas the Turing Machine; in .