Ferdinand Pauwels — Martin Luther hammers his 95 theses to the door Many major events caused Europe to change around the start of the 16th century, starting with the Fall of Constantinople inthe fall of Muslim Spain and the discovery of the Americas inand Martin Luther 's Protestant Reformation in
Egyptian mythology and Biblical cosmology Imago Mundi Babylonian map, the oldest known world map, 6th century BC Babylonia In early Egyptian  and Mesopotamian thoughtthe world was portrayed as a disk floating in the ocean.
A similar model is found in the Homeric account from the 8th century BC in which "Okeanos, the personified body of water surrounding the circular surface of the Earth, is the begetter of all life and possibly of all gods.
Modern world you take a lighted candle and set it in a room, you may expect it to light up the entire interior, unless something should hinder, though the room be quite large. But if you take an apple and hang it close to the flame, so near that it is heated, the apple will darken nearly half the room or even more.
However, if you hang the apple near the wall, it will not get hot; the candle will light up the whole house; and the shadow on the wall where the apple hangs will be scarcely half as large as the apple itself. From this you may infer that the Earth-circle is round like a ball and not equally near the sun at every point.
But where the curved surface lies nearest the sun's path, there will the greatest heat be; and some of the lands that lie continuously under the unbroken rays cannot be inhabited. Chinese astronomy In ancient Chinathe prevailing belief was that the Earth was flat and square, while the heavens were round,  an assumption virtually unquestioned until the introduction of European astronomy in the 17th century.
Chinese thought on the form of the Earth remained almost unchanged from early times until the first contacts with modern science through the medium of Jesuit missionaries in the seventeenth century.
The heavens are like a hen's egg and as round as a crossbow bullet; the Earth is like the yolk of the egg, and lies in the centre. The egg reference, however, was rather meant to clarify the relative position of the flat Earth to the heavens: In a passage of Zhang Heng's cosmogony not translated by Needham, Zhang himself says: Earth takes its body from the Yin, so it is flat and quiescent".
The point of the egg analogy is simply to stress that the Earth is completely enclosed by Heaven, rather than merely covered from above as the Kai Tian describes. Chinese astronomers, many of them brilliant men by any standards, continued to think in flat-Earth terms until the seventeenth century; this surprising fact might be the starting-point for a re-examination of the apparent facility with which the idea of a spherical Earth found acceptance in fifth-century BC Greece.
The Zhoubi Suanjing also discusses how to determine the distance of the Sun by measuring the length of noontime shadows at different latitudes, a method similar to Eratosthenes' measurement of the circumference of the Earth, but the Zhoubi Suanjing assumes that the Earth is flat.
The specific problem is: Need to reduce overlap with Spherical Earth and move off-topic material there. Please help improve this article if you can. July Further information: Spherical Earth and History of geodesy Greece: Semi-circular shadow of Earth on the Moon during the phases of a lunar eclipse Pythagoras in the 6th century BC and Parmenides in the 5th century stated that the Earth is spherical and this view spread rapidly in the Greek world.
Around BC, Aristotle maintained on the basis of physical theory and observational evidence that the Earth was spherical, and reported on an estimate on the circumference. His Almagest was written in Greek and only translated into Latin in the 11th century from Arabic translations.
The Terrestrial Sphere of Crates of Mallus c. This took a strong hold on the medieval mind.
Lucretius 1st century BC opposed the concept of a spherical Earth, because he considered that an infinite universe had no center towards which heavy bodies would tend. Thus, he thought the idea of animals walking around topsy-turvy under the Earth was absurd.
Pliny also considered the possibility of an imperfect sphere "shaped like a pinecone ". They are also described as bowls or leather bags, yielding a concave model. But it was naturally regarded as circular, being compared with a wheel For example, the fifth canto of the Bhagavata Puranaincludes sections that describe the Earth both as flat and spherical.
Detailed records, particularly about the observational practices have not survived. The cosmographic theories and assumptions in ancient India likely developed independently and in parallel, but these were influenced by some unknown quantitative Greek astronomy text in the medieval era.
Athenagorasan eastern Christian writing around the year CE said, "The world, being made spherical, is confined within the circles of heaven. They say that the circumference of the universe is likened to the turnings of a well-rounded globe, the Earth being a central point.
They say that since its outline is spherical, They also thought that heaven revolves in accordance with the motion of the heavenly bodies. For that reason, they constructed brass globes, as though after the figure of the universe.
I am at a loss as to what to say concerning those who, once they have erred, continue in their folly, defending one vain thing by another vain thing. It has neither upper nor lower regions, nor front nor back. For whatever is round and bounded on every side by the circumference of a solid sphere, has no beginning or end But as to the fable that there are Antipodes, that is to say, men on the opposite side of the Earth, where the sun rises when it sets to us, men who walk with their feet opposite ours that is on no ground credible.The Modern World, Part One: Global History from to from University of Virginia.
This is a survey of modern history from a global perspective. Part One begins with the political and economic revolutions of the late s and tracks the. 5 reviews of Modern World Adult Boutique "Great place to purchase products. Open 24 hours, so quicker than mail.
Friendly staff willing 3/5(5). Tate Modern is a very large gallery made of two buildings, Natalie Bell Building and Blavatnik Building.
Visiting all galleries involves moving around on different floors and buildings, across indoor bridges. The AK is a better weapon than any version of the AR/M16/M4/AR AR’s are a range Barbbie/snob gun. If they are surgically cleaned and carefully lubed several times a day, they will work about 50% of .
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The flat Earth model is an archaic conception of Earth's shape as a plane or srmvision.com ancient cultures subscribed to a flat Earth cosmography, including Greece until the classical period, the Bronze Age and Iron Age civilizations of the Near East until the Hellenistic period, India until the Gupta period (early centuries AD), and China until the 17th century.