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The celebrity status of such corporate leaders as Lee Iacocca and Bill Gates shows that society acknowledges the importance of managers to a company's success. Management theory is a relatively new science that began in earnest in the early 20th century, when French and American engineers published what widely are considered the first theories of management roles.
Fayolism French mining engineer Henri Fayol is the father of business management theories. Fayol published his theory in a French text that defines six roles of managers -- forecasting, planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling -- and applies Henry mintzberg management theory to 14 principles that mandate how managers should interact with staff.
Fayol believed in a top-down hierarchy, with managers serving as benevolent leaders who are responsible for supervising and disciplining subordinates, while treating them fairly and with kindness and paying a fair wage to discourage turnover.
Fayol also stressed the importance of giving one manager responsibility for each specialized group in an organization. The managers decide how much decision-making power each subordinate should have. Despite the power Fayolism assigns managers, Fayol also believed that employees who are allowed to take initiative will do so.
Modern management theory closely follows Fayolism.
Scientific Management American mechanical engineer Frederick Winslow Taylor based his scientific management theory on the results of his research that examined how people work. He concluded that working efficiently is more productive than working hard.
In addition to calling for an increase in efficiency, Taylor's four principles stressed a cooperative work environment in which managers instruct, supervise and assess employees' work -- a departure from the hands-off management style typical in early 20th-century manufacturing.
Taylor advised managers to hire the employees who are most capable for their specific jobs and who perform them most efficiently and to pay employees in relation to the amount of work they produce as an incentive for optimal productivity.
Scientific management's critics note that its one-size-fits-all approach often falls short. It also fails to recognize that workers are motivated by things other than money.
Organizational Theory Sociologist Max Weber believed that bureaucracy is the most efficient type of organization, as it replaces the "bureau," or office, as an organization's focus. In so doing, it reduces the risk of corruption by assigning authority, rather than personal power, to a manager who must follow the same set of rules as subordinates.
Thus, employees are obedient to the rules rather than to an individual who might abuse the power of his office. Weber also encouraged specialized divisions of labor among employees best suited for their particular jobs, as well as a division of functions among offices specializing in their individual roles.
His ideal workplace is impersonal and objective, with rules clearly defining the hierarchical power structure. Authorities, Weber noted, should be appointed on the basis of merit and paid a salary based on their level in the hierarchy.
Weber intended that his theory would encourage social equality. Mintzberg's 10 Management Roles Mintzberg differentiates between the work managers are assumed to do and the work they actually do by defining 10 common roles managers play.
They're organized into three categories: Informational management includes acquiring, disseminating and communicating information that's relevant to the organization and its stakeholders.
In an interpersonal role, the manager represents the company to the public; trains, motivates and supervises subordinates; and serves as a liaison between external and internal factors. The decisional role requires the manager to act as an entrepreneur and change agent, solve problems, allocate resources and negotiate solutions to issues at the team, departmental and organizational levels.Key Points.
The 5 Ps of Strategy were created by Henry Mintzberg in Each of the 5 Ps stands for a different approach to strategy: Plan. Ploy. Mintzberg published his Ten Management Roles in his book, "Mintzberg on Management: Inside our Strange World of Organizations," in The ten roles are: Figurehead.
Leader. Liaison. Monitor. Disseminator. Spokesperson. Entrepreneur. Disturbance Handler. Resource Allocator. Negotiator. From MINTZBERG ON MANAGEMENT by Henry Mintzberg.
Henry Mintzberg (), a well-known management thinker, recorded what some managers did during their working days and came to the conclusion that there was a gap between theory and practice.
He found that the manager’s work was characterised by pace, interruptions, brevity and a . Henry Mintzberg recommends breaking down management roles and responsibilities and organizing the workplace to simplify complex concepts. Henry Mintzberg is a management expert, author and academic.
He's written various books on management and now holds . e.g. Suburban store. Management Skills for International Business from University of London.
This course focuses on a range of management techniques. You’ll discover the main skills and competencies of effective leaders, and how to distinguish between management and.