When studying a period of human history, because humans create civilisations with ever-shifting customs, the context of each time period and geographic location are extremely important. And on the matter of warfare techniques:
Sabloff Chapter 4 in Modern Mongolia: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, To order, go to www. Starting July 1,you can order the book at www.
I became involved with Mongolia through good luck and good friends when the country had already become an independent democracy. The more I experienced Mongolia, the more interested I became in two questions: Why did Mongolians take to democracy so easily after centuries of oppression followed by seventy years of Communist rule?
And why do I feel so at home in Mongolia? In other words, what is there about Mongolians that makes an American feel that we easily understand each other?
I think these questions are very much linked together. As an anthropologist, my job is to live the way Mongolians do, observe their behavior, ask them questions, and listen to what they say. As an anthropologist, I am curious about a how they manage different situations—how they obtain and prepare food, how they earn a living, how they educate their children, how they relax; and b what do they think about the world around them—their families, their history, their government, and their place in the world.
My impression of Mongolians is that they are very much like us, for Mongolians and Americans have the same ideal of what a man should be—a rugged, independent, resourceful, self-sufficient loner. The difference is that the Mongolian Marlboro Man is connected to a mother—to family and friends—while the American version revels in his isolation from society.
Mongolians have a wonderful sense of humor, something we Americans pride ourselves on also. I have often been with a group of Mongolians—a family, a group of friends, or people who work together—and noticed that they are always talking, telling stories, or relating what happened to them yesterday.
But when they tell these stories, they always tell them in such a way that everyone gets to laugh at the end. Mongolians bond through laughter. Mongolians and Americans also share similar histories. For varying periods, we both have been underdogs fighting off powerful colonial masters to build free, democratic nations.
We are both tremendously proud of our traditions of freedom and democracy. Bywhen he was only twenty-seven years old, he had united the Mongol peoples into an independent nation instead of separate clans and tribes.
Between andhe expanded Mongol territory to roughly the territory of Mongolia today. At that point, he was elected Genghis Khan of All Mongols.
Their armor and stirrups were constructed to allow maximum freedom of movement on a horse, and this enabled them to shoot arrows with deadly accuracy while riding at full gallop. They could even hit their targets when shooting backwards from a galloping horse. Genghis Khan built a military organization that enabled him to incorporate whole units of foreign soldiers, thus assuring himself a limitless number of troops for further conquest.
But his real secret weapon may have been that they were eating a high-protein diet of meat, milk, and cheese while China and Europe were falling asleep on their diet of rice, pasta, and porridge! Of course these pasta-eaters were easy prey for the meat-eating Mongols!
By the time of his death inGenghis Khan had captured and controlled the Silk Road. Westerners evaluating outstanding achievement during the last millennium are only now recognizing his incredible accomplishment in a positive light.
But Genghis Khan has a different reputation among his descendants, the people of modern Mongolia. Please note that I am not saying that Genghis Khan actually led a democratic government. While some democratic principles can exist in a society that is not democratic, a democracy cannot exist without a basic cluster of democratic principles.
Anthropologists would say that Genghis Khan established the political culture that is still in the minds of Mongolians today. Political Culture What is political culture and why is it so important to a nation?
Simply put, politics is about different ways of organizing the distribution of resources. Some examples are monarchy, totalitarianism, consensus democracy, and majority-rule democracy.
Alexis de Tocqueville, the young Frenchman who visited the United States when it was a young democracy, characterized American political culture as guided by love of equality and individualism, civil society, a belief in the sovereignty of the people through majority ruleand distrust of government.
I went to Mongolia in to discover Mongolian political culture. And in the process, I stumbled across something bigger—namely, the roots of their political culture today. Political scientists have counted more than definitions of democracy.
The American definition is built on four pillars:Horoscope and natal chart of Nicki Minaj, born on /12/ you will find in this page an excerpt of the astrological portrait and the interpration of the planetary dominants. Job interviews tips and techniques, sample interview questions and answers, sample interviews letters and templates.
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What is referred to in English as the Mongol Empire was called the Ikh Mongol Uls (ikh: "great", uls: "state"; Great Mongolian State). In the s, one of Genghis's descendants, Güyük Khan, wrote a letter to Pope Innocent IV which used the preamble "Dalai (great/oceanic) Khagan of the great Mongolian state (ulus)".
After the succession war between Kublai Khan and his brother Ariq. Vittorio Bertocci is a developer, speaker, published author, avid reader, troublemaker, foodie, Italian expat, and other things that would not be wise to mention here..
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The views and opinions expressed here are his, and not those of his employer. Follow @vibronet. Oct 22, · Discuss different opinions about whether Genghis Khan was a hero or villain While Genghis Khan’s intent was and still is very clear, putting the label of hero or villain next to his name is still an awfully hard task to perform.
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