In this dialogue Socrates explains who he is and what kind of life he led. The Greek word "apologia" means "explanation" -- it is not to be confused with "apologizing" or "being sorry" for one's actions.
Mattey, Senior Lecturer Version 2. In the second segment of the class, we will have a look at the main developments in the history of the theory of knowledge from ancient times to the present. The material will be presented in three modules. The present module covers the birth of epistemology in the work of Plato and Aristotle in the 4th century B.
The second module is devoted to the contributions of the Hellenistic philosophers of the generations following Aristotle. The final module takes up the challenge posed by the ancient skeptics to the theories of Plato, Aristole, and the Hellenistic epistemologists.
Plato Some philosophers before Plato, most notably Socrates, had made pronouncements about knowledge. Socrates famously proclaimed that the only thing he knew was that he was ignorant.
But the origins of the theory of knowledge can be found in the dialogues of Plato, which set the tone for much of the shape of the projects I sketched out in the introductory remarks. Plato's Methodology As far as methodology goes, I shall make the case that Plato was a methodist in his treatment of knowledge.
Plato also regarded knowledge as an objective property of human beings. One of the most important features of Plato's philosophy, a feature which he appears to have taken over from Socrates, is the view that when we attribute something to an individual for example, knowledgeit is because we think that the individual falls under some universal characteristic.
So a person is said to know in a particular instance because that person has fulfilled some specific condition or conditions required for there to be knowledge in that case.
The basic demand for an understanding of the universal characteristics of a kind of thing before we can make particular attributions about it can be found in the early dialogue Euthyphro.
In the dialogue, the priest Euthyphro is prosecuting his father for impiety. Given the way this act violates the "family values" of the ancient Athenians, Socrates demands of Euthyphro that he state what it is that makes any given pious act pious. And therefore, I adjure you to tell me the nature of piety and impiety, which you said that you knew so well, and of murder, and of other offences against the gods.
Is not piety in every action always the same? Euthypro agrees and proceeds to give some examples of pious acts, as a particularist with respect to piety might. But Socrates demands more. Remember that I did not ask you to give me two or three examples of piety, but to explain the general idea which makes all pious things to be pious.
Do you not recollect that there was one idea which made the impious impious, and the pious pious? Tell me what is the nature of this idea, and then I shall have a standard to which I may look, and by which I may measure actions, whether yours or those of any one else, and then I shall be able to say that such and such an action is pious, such another impious.
This demand carries over to knowledge.
We must look for a universal standard that applies to all cases of knowledge. Moreover, the standard is not to be found by examining particular cases, as a particularist would hold. This is why I regard Plato as having been a methodist and indeed to have invented methodism itself.
It is also clear in Plato that an adequate standard must be objective, and in the case of knowledge, an individual has it only if he or she meets this standard. Plato's Analysis of Knowledge Having described Plato's contribution to the methodological project, we can turn to the genesis of the analytical project in Plato.
The most extensive discussion of the conditions for knowledge is found in the dialogue Theaetetus. It begins as one might expect. Socrates who himself is very skeptical is questioning Theaetetus, a bright young student. Herein lies the difficulty which I can never solve to my satisfaction--What is knowledge?Thus the figure of the cave in Book VII is a recapitulation of the divisions of knowledge in Book VI.
The composite animal in Book IX is an allegory of the parts of the soul. The noble captain and the ship and the true pilot in Book VI are a figure of the relation of the people to the philosophers in the State which has been described.
Plato: The Republic. For example, why wouldn’t a person with a great desire for knowledge steal a book if this would contribute to his knowledge. Discussions on the Soul in the Republic. Lorenz, Hendrik. “The Analysis of the Soul in Plato’s. Plato the allegory of the cave essay Plato's Allegory of the Cave - Plato’s “Allegory of the Cave” is the most significant and influential analogy in his book, The Republic.
This thorough analogy covers many of the images Plato. The Allegory of the Cave, or Plato's Cave, was presented by the Greek philosopher Plato in his work Republic (a–a) to compare "the effect of education (παιδεία) and the lack of it on our nature". In Book II of the Plato’s they begin to make laws and covenants, and what the law commands they call lawful and just.
This, they say, is the origin and essence of justice. is that the Good is this unhypothetical first principle of everything. Finally, Socrates offers the Allegory of the Cave, a figure which shows “how far our. Aug 04, · The Allegory is related to Plato's Theory of Forms, wherein Plato asserts that "Forms" (or "Ideas"), and not the material world of change known to .