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Ancient era[ edit ] Bronze wine container from the 9th century BCE. The first packages used the natural materials available at the time: Processed materials were used to form packages as they were developed: The study of old packages is an important aspect of archaeology.
The earliest recorded use of paper for packaging dates back towhen a Persian traveler visiting markets in Cairo noted that vegetables, spices and hardware were wrapped in paper for the customers after they were sold.
The manufacture of tinplate was long a monopoly of Bohemia ; in Andrew Yarrantonan English engineerand Ambrose Crowley brought the method to England where it was improved by ironmasters including Philip Foley.
Tinplate boxes first began to be sold from ports in the Bristol Channel in The tinplate was shipped from Newport, Monmouthshire. Tobacconists in London began packaging snuff in metal-plated canisters from the s onwards. Canning[ edit ] magazine advertisement for cookware with instructions for home canning.
With the discovery of the importance of airtight containers for food preservation by French inventor Nicholas Appertthe tin canning process was patented by British merchant Peter Durand in He sold his patent in to two other Englishmen, Bryan Donkin and John Hall, who refined the process and product and set up the world's first commercial canning factory on Southwark Park Road, London.
Bythey were producing the first canned goods for the Royal Navy. Robert Yeates, a cutlery and surgical instrument maker of Trafalgar Place West, Hackney Road, MiddlesexUK, devised a claw-ended can opener with a hand-operated tool that haggled its way around the top of metal cans.
Paper-based packaging[ edit ] Packing folding cartons of salt. Set-up boxes were first used in the 16th century and modern folding cartons date back to The first corrugated box was produced commercially in in England. Corrugated also called pleated paper received a British patent in and was used as a liner for tall hats.
Scottish-born Robert Gair invented the pre-cut paperboard box in —flat pieces manufactured in bulk that folded into boxes. Gair's invention came about as a result of an accident: Gair discovered that by cutting and creasing in one operation he could make prefabricated paperboard boxes. These innovations increased processing efficiency and improved food safety.
As additional materials such as aluminum and several types of plastic were developed, they were incorporated into packages to improve performance and functionality. InMichigan State University became the first university in the world to offer a degree in Packaging Engineering.
Post-consumer recycling of aluminum and paper-based products has been economical for many years: A pill box made from polyethylene in Many prominent innovations in the packaging industry were developed first for military use.
Some military supplies are packaged in the same commercial packaging used for general industry. Other military packaging must transport materielsupplies, foods, etc. Packaging problems encountered in World War II led to Military Standard or "mil spec" regulations being applied to packaging, which was then designated "military specification packaging".
As a prominent concept in the military, mil spec packaging officially came into being arounddue to operations in Iceland experiencing critical losses, ultimately attributed to bad packaging.
In most cases, mil spec packaging solutions such as barrier materials, field rationsantistatic bagsand various shipping crates are similar to commercial grade packaging materials, but subject to more stringent performance and quality requirements. About half of this market was related to food packaging.
Barrier protection — A barrier to oxygenwater vapordust, etc. Permeation is a critical factor in design. Some packages contain desiccants or oxygen absorbers to help extend shelf life.
Modified atmospheres  or controlled atmospheres are also maintained in some food packages. Keeping the contents clean, fresh, sterile  and safe for the duration of the intended shelf life is a primary function.
A barrier is also implemented in cases where segregation of two materials prior to end use is required, as in the case of special paints, glues, medical fluids, etc.Brown_freq worrisome worry worry-worryin worrying worse worsened worsens worship worshiped worshipful Essay proofreader worshiping worshipped worshippers worshipping worst worst-marked Issuu Proposal for dissertation is The life and contributions of zoroaster a an analysis of the advertisement for glues sunglasses in recovery magazine digital.
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Packaging is the science, art and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and use. Packaging also refers to the process of designing, evaluating, and producing packages.
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